# What is the cause of decreasing voltage at the end of the transmission lines?

## What is the cause of decreasing voltage at the end of the transmission lines?

The line voltage drop in the transmission line is mainly due to the transmission line parameters— resistance ❲R❳, inductance ❲L❳, capacitance ❲C❳, and shunt conductance ❲G❳. Similarly, the power dissipation in the line resistance causes a decrease in the efficiency of the power transmission cables.

What is the effect of capacitance in transmission line also explain Ferranti effect?

The ferranti effect is an phenomenon where the steady voltage at the open end of an uncompensated transmission line is always higher than the voltage at the sending end.It occours as a result of the capacitive charging current flowing through the inductance of the line and resulting over voltage increases according to …

### What are the issues of Ferranti effect?

In electrical engineering, the Ferranti effect is the increase in voltage occurring at the receiving end of a very long (> 200 km) AC electric power transmission line, relative to the voltage at the sending end, when the load is very small, or no load is connected.

How can corona effect be reduced?

Methods of Reducing Corona Effects

1. By Increasing Conductor Size: The voltage at which corona occurs can be raised by increasing conductor size.
2. By Increasing Conductor Spacing: The corona effect can be eliminated by increasing the spacing between conductors, which raises the voltage at which corona occurs.

## How does the Ferranti effect occur?

The Ferranti Effect is a voltage increase in the receiving end of an electrical transmission line when it is operated in a no-load, or low-load, condition. This results in a receiving end voltage value higher than the sending point. This phenomenon was discovered by electrical engineer Sebastian Ziani de Ferranti.

Is it possible to increase the transmission voltage indefinitely?

The signal produced at the transmitter end is of very low power, so we need to increase the power of the signal and then transmit. It is not always possible to increase the transmission power indefinitely such that every receiver can get the required power of the signal.

### What is the reason of Ferranti effect?

The effect is caused by the interaction between the inductance and capacitance of the line. When the power line is operated at no-load, or low load conditions, the voltage at the receiving end can be higher than the input voltage.

On what factor does the skin effect depends upon?

Skin depth depends on the frequency of the alternating current; as frequency increases, current flow moves to the surface, resulting in less skin depth. Skin effect reduces the effective cross-section of the conductor and thus increases its effective resistance.

## What is the cause of skin effect?

Skin effect is caused by opposing eddy currents induced by the changing magnetic field resulting from the alternating current. At 60 Hz in copper, the skin depth is about 8.5 mm. At high frequencies the skin depth becomes much smaller.

What is the reason of corona loss?

Corona is a phenomenon associated with all transmission lines. Under certain conditions, the localized electric field near energized components and conductors can produce a tiny electric discharge or corona, that causes the surrounding air molecules to ionize, or undergo a slight localized change of electric charge.

### How do I get rid of the Ferranti effect?

The Ferranti effect can be mitigated by using FACTS devices for reactive power compensation. Thyristor-controlled reactors and thyristor switched capacitors can be connected to the transmission line, and the proper switching of these devices can help control the Ferranti effect on transmission lines.

Why does the Ferranti effect occur at the receiving end?

This effect is due to the voltage drop across the line inductance (due to charging current) being in phase with the sending end voltages. As this voltage drop affects the sending end voltage, the receiving end voltage becomes greater.

## Why is the Ferranti effect a problem in underground cables?

Therefore, the Ferranti effect tends to be a bigger problem on lightly loaded lines, and especially on underground cable circuits where the shunt capacitance is greater than with a corresponding overhead line. This effect is due to the voltage drop across the line inductance (due to charging current) being in phase with the sending end voltages.

Which is the reference phasor for the Ferranti effect?

In general for a 300 Km line operating at a frequency of 50 Hz, the no-load receiving end voltage has been found to be 5% higher than the sending end voltage. Now for the analysis of the Ferranti effect let us consider the phasor diagrams shown above. Here, V r is considered to be the reference phasor, represented by OA.