What is the difference between pericardial effusion and tamponade?

What is the difference between pericardial effusion and tamponade?

Pericardial effusion is an anatomic diagnosis of abnormal pericardial fluid accumula- tion that has no hemodynamic consequences, whereas cardiac tamponade is a physiologic diagnosis of varying amounts of pericardial fluid that causes increased pressure and resultant hemodynamic consequences (Harken, Hammond, & Ed- …

How does echo describe pericardial effusion?

On echo, a pericardial effusion appears as an echo-free space behind the heart in the absence of pericardial motion.

What does pericardial effusion look like on Echo?

Echocardiographic findings in pericardial effusion may include the following: Echo-free space: (1) posterior to LV (small-to-moderate effusion); (2) posterior and anterior (moderate-to-large effusion); (3) behind left atrium (large-to-very large effusion and/or anterior adhesion.

Can a tamponade be associated with a pericardial effusion?

Tamponade will be associated with a moderate to large pericardial effusion. However, tamponade can be present with a small or localized effusion in situations associated with dissection, trauma or post-procedural event.

How is cardiac tamponade a life-threatening emergent situation?

LIFE-THREATENING EMERGENT SITUATION! Cardiac tamponade is a condition that causes impaired cardiac filling due to a high pericardial pressure and increased amount of fluid within sac. In other words, the heart is being compressed, squished!

How are peak filling velocities affected by tamponade?

The peak filling velocities of the tricuspid and mitral valves will display respiration variation in the presence of tamponade. During inspiration, the right heart filling pressures will increase and decrease with expiration. To evaluate this change: Evaluation is done to both the tricuspid and mitral valve.

Which is not present in a tamponade and constriction?

not present Parameter Constriction Restriction ññE velocity, ñE/A Short E decel ti Present Present Mitral inflow respiratory variation Present Absent Tissue Doppler e’ velocity Normal or increased Severely reduced PA systolic pressure Normal Increased